Transcription factor activation is complex and may involve multiple intracellular signal transduction pathways, including the kinases PKA, MAPKs, JAKs, and PKCs, stimulated by cell-surface receptors [8, 9]. Transcription factors may also be directly activated by ligands such as glucocorticoids and vitamins A and D .
- 1 Where do most transcription regulators bind?
- 2 How do scientists sequence proteins?
- 3 What protein interacts with the cap protein?
- 4 What does it mean to say a DNA sequence is highly conserved?
- 5 What are two ways in which repressors can interfere with transcription?
- 6 What controls gene expression?
- 7 Do all transcription factors bind to DNA?
- 8 Where do activator proteins bind?
- 9 What are the building blocks of proteins?
- 10 What is the first step of protein synthesis called?
- 11 Does DNA make proteins?
- 12 Does CAP bend DNA?
- 13 What does catabolite activator protein do?
- 14 How does CAP protein work?
Where do most transcription regulators bind?
How or where do most transcription regulators bind? Most transcriptional regulator proteins bind DNA as dimers. Dimerization roughly doubles the area of contact with the DNA, making the interaction tighter and more specific.
How do scientists sequence proteins?
A technique called mass spectrometry permits scientists to sequence the amino acids in a protein. … After a sequence is known, comparing its amino acid sequence with databases allows scientists to discover if there are related proteins whose function is already known.
What protein interacts with the cap protein?
Thus, CAP makes protein-protein interactions with αCTD, and αCTD makes protein-DNA interactions with the DNA minor groove adjacent to the DNA site for CAP. The interaction between CAP and αCTD is mediated by AR1 of CAP and the 287 determinant of αCTD (blue and yellow in Figs 3a, 4).
What does it mean to say a DNA sequence is highly conserved?
Conservation indicates that a sequence has been maintained by natural selection. A highly conserved sequence is one that has remained relatively unchanged far back up the phylogenetic tree, and hence far back in geological time.
What are two ways in which repressors can interfere with transcription?
What are two ways in which repressors can interfere with transcription? Some can bind to the binding side of activators, thus preventing them from binding to DNA and so transcription cannot be activated. Some can order the chromatin structure to coil up tightly and that makes them unavailable for transcription.
What controls gene expression?
Gene expression is primarily controlled at the level of transcription, largely as a result of binding of proteins to specific sites on DNA. … Regulation of protein production is largely achieved by modulating access of RNA polymerase to the structural gene being transcribed.2 fév. 2018
Do all transcription factors bind to DNA?
Due to the nature of these chemical interactions, most transcription factors bind DNA in a sequence specific manner. However, not all bases in the transcription factor-binding site may actually interact with the transcription factor.
Where do activator proteins bind?
Activator proteins bind to regulatory sites on DNA nearby to promoter regions that act as on/off switches. This binding facilitates RNA polymerase activity and transcription of nearby genes.
What are the building blocks of proteins?
The building blocks of proteins are amino acids, which are small organic molecules that consist of an alpha (central) carbon atom linked to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable component called a side chain (see below).
What is the first step of protein synthesis called?
Does DNA make proteins?
How does DNA do it? The main job of DNA is to make the proteins that living things need to grow. … Proteins are large molecules made of smaller molecules called amino acids. Proteins have special shapes that help them to bind tightly to specific other molecules in the cell.
Does CAP bend DNA?
DNA bound by the CAP-cAMP complex is bent by ~90 degrees. This DNA bend, coupled with a protein-protein interaction between CAP and RNA polymerase is thought to be the mechanism by which CAP regluates transcription initiation on the chromosome.
What does catabolite activator protein do?
Catabolite activator protein (CAP), also known as cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), is activated by cyclic AMP and stimulates synthesis of the enzymes that break down non-glucose food molecules.
How does CAP protein work?
CAP activates transcription through protein-protein interactions with the α-subunit of RNA Polymerase. … This interaction opens up the DNA molecule, allowing RNA polymerase to bind and transcribe the genes involved in lactose catabolism.