A brain tumor is a mass or growth of abnormal cells in your brain. There are many different types of brain tumors. Some brain tumors are non-cancerous (benign), others are cancerous (malignant). Brain tumors can start in the brain (primary brain tumors) or in other parts of the body and spread to the brain as secondary (metastatic) brain tumors. The growth rate of a brain tumor can vary greatly. The growth rate as well as the location of a brain tumor determines how it will affect the functioning of your nervous system. Brain tumor treatment options depend on the type of brain tumor you have, as well as its size and location.
- 1 Symptoms of a brain tumor
- 2 When to consult a doctor
- 3 Main causes of a brain tumor
- 4 Cancer that starts elsewhere and spreads to the brain
- 5 Brain Tumor Risk Factors
- 6 Diagnostic
- 7 Alternative medicine and brain tumor
- 8 Sources
Symptoms of a brain tumor
The signs and symptoms of a brain tumor are highly variable and depend on the size, location, and rate of growth of the tumor.
General signs and symptoms caused by a brain tumor may include the following:
– The appearance of new headaches or a change in the pattern of headaches.
– headaches that gradually become more frequent and severe
– unexplained nausea or vomiting
– vision problems, such as blurred vision, double vision or loss of peripheral vision
– Gradual loss of sensation or movement in an arm or leg
– Balance difficulties
– Speech difficulties
– Feeling very tired
– Confusion in current affairs
– Difficulty making decisions
– Inability to follow simple commands
– Changes in personality or behavior
– Epileptic seizures, especially in a person who has no history of epileptic seizures.
– Hearing problems
When to consult a doctor
Make an appointment with your doctor if you have persistent signs and symptoms that worry you.
Main causes of a brain tumor
Primary brain tumors start in the brain itself or in tissues close to it, such as the membranes that cover the brain (meninges), cranial nerves, pituitary gland or pineal gland. Primary brain tumors occur when normal cells develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell’s DNA contains the instructions that tell it what to do. Mutations tell cells to grow and divide rapidly and continue to live when healthy cells would die. The result is a mass of abnormal cells, which forms a tumor. In adults, primary brain tumors are much less common than secondary brain tumors, in which cancer starts elsewhere and spreads to the brain.
There are many different types of primary brain tumors. Each takes its name from the type of cells involved.
Here are some examples:
These tumors start in the brain or spinal cord and include astrocytomas, ependymomas, glioblastomas, oligoastrocytomas, and oligodendrogliomas.
A meningioma is a tumor that grows from the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Most meningiomas are not cancerous.
These are benign tumors that grow on the nerves that control balance and hearing, from the inner ear to the brain.
These are tumors that develop in the pituitary gland, at the base of the brain. These tumors can affect pituitary hormones with effects throughout the body.
These cancerous brain tumors are more common in children, although they can occur at any age. A medulloblastoma begins in the lower back part of the brain and tends to spread into the cerebrospinal fluid.
Germ cell tumors
Germ cell tumors can develop in childhood and affect the testicles or ovaries. But sometimes germ cell tumors affect other parts of the body, such as the brain.
These rare tumors grow near the pituitary gland of the brain, which secretes hormones that control many bodily functions. Growing slowly, the craniopharyngioma can affect the pituitary and other structures near the brain.
Cancer that starts elsewhere and spreads to the brain
Secondary (metastatic) brain tumors are tumors resulting from cancer that starts elsewhere in your body and spreads (metastasizes) to your brain. Secondary brain tumors occur most often in people who have a history of cancer. In rare cases, a metastatic brain tumor may be the first sign of cancer that started elsewhere in your body. In adults, secondary brain tumors are much more common than primary brain tumors.
Any type of cancer can spread to the brain, but the most common types are:
Brain Tumor Risk Factors
In most people with primary brain tumors, the cause of the tumor is unclear. But doctors have identified some factors that may increase your risk of brain tumors.
Risk factors include:
People who have been exposed to a type of radiation called ionizing radiation have an increased risk of brain tumors. Examples of ionizing radiation include radiation therapy used to treat cancer and radiation exposure caused by atomic bombs.
Family history of brain tumors
A small portion of brain tumors occur in people with a family history of brain tumors or a family history of genetic syndromes that increase the risk of brain tumors.
If you are suspected of having a brain tumor, your doctor may recommend a number of tests and procedures, including:
A neurological examination
A neurological examination may include, among other things, checking your vision, hearing, balance, coordination, strength and reflexes. Difficulties in one or more areas can provide clues about which part of your brain might be affected by a brain tumor.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to help diagnose brain tumors. A dye is sometimes injected into a vein in your arm during your MRI scan. A number of specialized components of MRI, including functional MRI, perfusion MRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, can help your doctor assess the tumor and plan treatment.
Other imaging tests are sometimes recommended in certain situations, including computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET).
Removal and analysis of a sample of abnormal tissue (biopsy).
A biopsy may be performed as part of an operation to remove the brain tumor, or a biopsy may be performed using a needle. A stereotaxic needle biopsy may be done for brain tumors in hard to reach areas or very sensitive areas of your brain that could be damaged by a larger operation. Your neurosurgeon drills a small hole in your skull. A fine needle is then inserted into this hole. Tissue is removed using the needle, which is often guided by a CT scan or MRI.
The biopsy sample is then examined under a microscope to determine if it is cancerous or benign. Sophisticated lab tests can give your doctor clues about your prognosis and treatment options. Studying your biopsy sample and determining exactly what type of brain tumor you have is a complex process. If you are unsure of your diagnosis, consider seeking a second opinion at a medical center where many brain biopsies are evaluated each year.
Alternative medicine and brain tumor
Little research has been done on complementary and alternative treatments for brain tumours. Alternative treatments have not been proven to cure brain tumors. However, complementary treatments can help you cope with the stress of being diagnosed with a brain tumor.
Here are some complementary treatments that can help you deal with the situation:
Discuss these options with your doctor.
Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Cancer of the central nervous system. In: Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2020. Accessed March 25, 2021.
Central nervous system cancers. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Accessed March 25, 2021.
Wong ET, et al. Overview of the clinical features and diagnosis of brain tumors in adults. Accessed March 30, 2021.
Adult central nervous system tumors treatment (PDQ) — Patient version. National Cancer Institute. . Accessed March 25, 2021.
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