Nutrition

These specific intestinal bacteria to pamper if you want to lose weight

According to a new study, the microbiome can influence how the body responds to diets aimed at weight loss. Indeed, recent research suggests that the composition of the gut microbiome can predict an individual’s likelihood of obesity or diet success. Gut microbiome genes associated with bacterial replication and carbohydrate and protein breakdown predicted weight loss response.

The gut microbiome is made up of various bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms that reside in the digestive tract, and their composition varies among individuals. Some experts believe that the gut microbiome can significantly influence an individual’s overall well-being by modulating metabolism, immune function, and mental health. These gut microbes influence energy metabolism by regulating glucose metabolism, appetite, and fat storage. Animal and human studies have shown that changes in the composition and function of gut microorganisms are associated with obesity and diabetes.

Bacteria that promote or prevent weight loss

The researchers identified the genes that were most abundant in the gut microbiota of individuals before they participated in a weight loss program.
Based on the biological functions of these genes, the researchers were able to deduce the functional profile of the entire gut microbiome. They found that the functional profile of gut microbiota genes at the start of the weight loss program predicted an individual’s ability to lose weight. Notably, between individuals who lost weight and those who resisted weight loss, there was a difference in the abundance of microbiome genes that scientists know influence human metabolism. This work can lead to diagnostics to identify people who may respond to mild lifestyle interventions or those who may need more drastic weight loss interventions.

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These findings hint at the organisms and genes responsible for weight loss success or resistance, which may guide future interventions aimed at engineering microbiomes resistant to weight loss into microbiomes permeable to weight loss. The study is published in the journal mSystems.

Baseline BMI and Weight Loss

In the current study, researchers analyzed data from 105 people who had enrolled in a behavioral wellness program. The researchers collected information about the participants, including their weight and their body mass index (BMI), a value that uses a person’s height and weight to estimate their fat mass. They also examined blood samples at the start of the study and 6 to 12 months after the start of the program.

The researchers also collected diet information and stool samples at the start of the wellness program. They used the blood samples to assess levels of various metabolites and proteins and used the stool samples to determine the composition and function of the gut microbiota.

The researchers also assessed differences in gut microbiota function using metagenomic analysis. Instead of characterizing the genome of each species of microorganism, a metagenomic analysis involves identifying the most abundant genes in the entire community of microorganisms that make up the gut microbiota. Identifying the most abundant genes can help predict the function of the entire gut microbiome.

Changes in blood metabolic markers

Using blood samples taken before and after the weight loss intervention, the researchers compared changes in levels of metabolic markers in the group that lost weight and in the group that did not lose weight. . They found that the weight loss group, compared to the stable weight group, had increased levels of adiponectin. Fat secretes the hormone adiponectin, and increased levels of this protein are associated with weight loss.
The weight-loss group also showed decreased levels of six proteins, which scientists have previously shown to be associated with inflammation, obesity and other metabolic disorders. Thus, weight loss was associated with improved metabolic and immune profiles of individuals.

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Gut microbiota: a major factor in weight loss

The researchers found that the extent of weight loss did not correlate with baseline dietary habits or blood metabolite levels. Levels of a single obesity-associated protein in the blood, the KIT ligand, were positively associated with resistance to weight loss.
In contrast, a number of baseline characteristics were associated with participants’ baseline BMI. Although the researchers found no association between microbiome composition and weight loss, levels of 31 microbiome genes were associated with weight loss. In other words, the genetic profile of the microbiome was a better predictor of weight loss than baseline dietary habits or blood metabolite and protein levels. Overall, lead author Christian Diener, Ph.D., concludes, “The gut microbiome is a major player in modulating the success or failure of a weight loss intervention. »

Prevotella family bacteria promote weight loss

The most abundant microbiome gene class in the weight loss group was that associated with bacterial cell wall synthesis. The increase in cell wall synthesis occurs during bacterial replication. The researchers found that bacterial replication rates were indeed higher in the group that lost weight than in the group that did not lose weight. In addition, bacteria belonging to the genus Prevotella were largely responsible for the increased replication rate in the weight loss group.

Previous research has shown that people with higher levels of Prevotella in the gut are more likely to lose weight on a high fiber diet.

Source

Baseline Gut Metagenomic Functional Gene Signature Associated with Variable Weight Loss Responses following a Healthy Lifestyle Intervention in Humans

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* Presse Santé strives to transmit medical knowledge in a language accessible to all. In NO CASE can the information given replace medical advice. [HighProtein-Foods.com]

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